Place of birth of Man in the Cave of Malapa – The Malapa Cave is located 15 kilometers northeast of South Africa, or 9.3 mi near South Africa. This cave is famous all over the world because of the latest findings of human’s closest ancestors. Lee R. Berger was the person who began to discover the Cave of Malapa in South Africa.
The Malapa Cave is now also known as the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage in South Africa. There you can find the findings of the Malapa expedition. Fossils from the expedition were also found and stored there.
What Did They Find on the Malapa Fossil Site?
During the discovery, Prof. Lee R. Berger discovered more than 100 fossil fragments. Although this is not a match with the number of online gambling games offered by https://multibet88.online, this is a very large number for scientific discoveries. Details of the findings are:
The first thing they found was a 6-partial human skeleton. That shows about the discovery of undiscovered humans who lived in an earlier era, or maybe millions of years ago. This is also called a good start of Prof.’s research. Berger.
Besides some partial skeletons found in the Malapa Cave, they also found 220 Bone Fragments in the same cave. This finding led them to other cave discoveries. They also conducted research for more than 10 caves around the Malapa Cave. Now the Malapa area is also referred to as the Cradle of World Human Heritage in South Africa.
In 2010, they found 220 Sediba Australopithecus bone fragments before they continued other research in the same area. Now Australopithecus Sediba is also called the direct ancestor of humans.
Types of Findings in the Malapa Cave
In Malapa Cave, they found several types of fossils. They are Holotype and also Paratype. Look at this:
-Malapa Homini 1
The first finding was Malapa Homini 1, and then they named it MH-1. MH-1 is a fossil holotype in the Malapa Cave. MH-1 was found as a Juvenile Male called Karabo. This is the first species found at the Malapa Fossil Site.
-Malapa Homini 2
After finding MH-1 as a Holotype, they found Malapa Homini 2 which they later named MH-2 as a fossil Paratipe in the Cave of Malapa. MH-2 is known as an adult woman. After MH-2, they also found other species of adult males and 3 babies. They are found in the same area as MH-1 and MH-2.
Further research from Prof. Lee R. Berger still continues to find other species that may be related to humans. In certain areas, more than 2 species have been found. Since 2010, they have continued to elaborate on humanity’s new findings.
Earth is interesting planet in the universe. This is the planet where human lives and there are lives in this planet. Of course, this planet has many kinds of things to learn and geography is one of the important subjects learning this planet. This subject talks about the earth and it is not only about the surface of the earth. Geography talks about things exist on earth. It talks about mountains and volcanoes. This also talks about oceans, seas, lakes, and even rivers. Then, this subject also learns about the things above the earth, such as the atmosphere and its layers. Things under the surface of the earth are also discussed, such as the layer of earth up to its core. Moreover, there are also natural phenomenon discussed in this subject. Natural disasters such as tornado and volcanic eruptions are discussed. There are also weathers, climates, and even trees and plantations on earth. There are many things to study in this subjects.
Of course, those are important things to understand. In this case, there are also some interesting facts about the earth and these are found because people study geography. First fact is about the highest place. Most of the people must have known that Mt. Everest in Himalaya is the highest peak on earth. This is the highest top in the earth. However, there are 25 places categorized as the highest peaks on earth. The great news is that 19 of those peaks are located on Himalaya. This is very interesting since Himalaya has already had Everest, and there are still 18 other peaks to find in this place. Even, this is more than half of the peaks on earth are found in Himalaya. This is awesome.
Then, there is also a unique country called Nauru. This country is not located on the continent. This county is located in the ocean, specifically in the Pacific Ocean. This country is quite small, but still Vatican City is the smallest country on the earth. The interesting thing is that this country has no official capital. All of the countries on earth has capital city but Nauru is different. This has no capital city and this makes this country special. While even the smallest country has official capital, this small country in the Pacific Ocean does not have it. However, it does not mean that this country has no government offices. There is government and office since this is the condition of the sovereign country. The office is located in Yaren, but this town is not the official capital. No one knows why this city is not made into capital and the country choose to have no capital.
In the beginning, geography is largely associated with the names of places and cartography. Because of this, it is easy to think that a geographer’s main concern is about drawing maps. In actuality, it is rather more complicated than that. A geographer may have been trained in both cartology and toponymy. Their primary study, however, concerns with the matter of space and temporal database distribution of features, processes, and phenomena as well as the relationships between human and nature. Geography is interdisciplinary because space and place is directly connected with a string of other topics and subjects such as animals and plants, climate, health, and economics. As a field of science, geography has traditionally been categorized into two large subgroups: physical geography and human geography. Physical geography deals with the study of natural environment and the way landforms, water, soil, climate, and organisms interact with each other. Human geography examines the way humans influence, manage, view, and create or build space and environment.
A third subgroup would then manifest as a result of the difference between the two previous categories: the environmental geography. In environmental geography, both physical and human geographies merge, with the interactions between humans and environment as its main focus of study.
Geography is a broad term of field of study. Besides the two aforementioned main divisions, geography has branches and sub-branches with their own focused subjects.
1. Physical geography
Physical geography is geography in its Earth science form. It examines problems found in biosphere (flora and fauna patterns of global scope), pedosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Areas of studies under this category include: biogeography, climatology and meteorology, coastal geography, environmental management, geodesy, geomorphology, glaciology, hydrology and hydrography, landscape ecology, oceanography, pedology, palaeogeography, as well as quaternary science.
2. Human geography
Human geography examines processes and patterns that shape human society. It is related to many aspects including economics, social, cultural, political, and human. Disciplines under this category include: cultural geography, health geography, historical and time geography, political geography and geopolitics, population geography and demography, religion geography, social geography, transportation geography, tourism geography, as well as urban geography.
Approaches toward human geography are presented in various methods including:
a. Behavioral geography
b. Feminist geography
c. Culture theory
3. Integrated geography
Areas it commands include: political ecology, sustainability, environmental management, and emergency management.
Geomatics is an application of computers to cartography and topography.
5. Regional geography
Geography is a broad field of science. It concerns with human, the Earth, and how the two interact with one another. Examinations can be done toward the things occurring in both larger scope of Earth as a planet and smaller, much more focused study of the people living on the planet itself. The presence of many varieties of subdivisions and branches of geography is a testament to how broad and large-scoped the discipline has been since its first inception. Not only that it has spawned numerous branches, fields of studies related to geography have also emerged over the years.
These related fields are based on the geographical principles but their focus study may deviate somewhat away from the traditional geography. Such related fields are:
1. Urban planning, regional planning, and spatial planning
The three subjects rely on geography to determine the best possible way to develop a space (or not to do so) to meet some criteria (preservation of heritage of both natural and built nature, economic opportunities, beauty, and safety). The development of rural areas, cities, and towns could also be categorized as applied geography.
2. Regional science
Regional science is a movement that Walter Isard led in the 1950s. The movement was intended as a way to revolutionize the traditional geography programs that were more descriptive. Regional science is a more quantitative and analytical approach toward geographical questions and problems. The discipline is made up of fields of study that has spatial dimension as its main focus, including environmental quality, landscape ecology, population distribution, human geography, transport and communication, urban and regional planning, location theory, resource management, and regional economics.
3. Interplanetary sciences
The Earth is the traditional object of study in geography. However, as our progress of knowledge has expanded toward the worlds beyond the Earth, the term can also be applied informally to studies of bodies of planets, both within the Solar System and beyond. In this case, geography deals with a system much larger than the Earth itself and in this sense, geography makes up part of cosmology and astronomy. The term for studies of planets other than the Earth would be planetary science. Alternative terms have also been coined such as areology for studies of the planet Mars. However, these alternative terms are still not widely used.
These three fields of study show just how massive and all-encompassing geography can be. It is so broad that it is flexible enough to be used outside of the Earth.
As a field of science, geography is derived from a Greek word, geographia, which translates into ôearth descriptionö. Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) was recorded as the first person to use the Greek word of the science field. Geography has a lot to do with study of all kinds of phenomena of Earth, its lands, its inhabitants, and its features. In broader sense, geography is a discipline of science with all-encompassing nature where the practitioners do everything in their power to unravel the complexities of the Earth, the extent of which spans from the subject of the location of objects to the process through which they have changed and originated from.
To discuss about geography means to take into account the two larger branches of it. The first branch of the field is human geography and the second is physical geography. Human geography often deals with studying people, how they function in a community, cultures of some people, economies, and their interactions with their environment, measured through how the relate to space and place. Physical geography, on the other hand, is concerned mainly about natural patterns and processes, including ones found at the atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.
Geography also has four major traditions in how the research into geographical matters is conducted. They are: a) analyses of spatial category of both human and natural phenomena, b) regions and places area studies, c) studies of the relationships between human and land, and d) the sciences of the Earth. All of these four traditions are to be considered historical in relation with geography as a larger field of study owing to their presence since the early development of the science itself.
As geography deals with matters concerning both human and nature, it has been dubbed ôthe world disciplineö. The all-encompassing subjects it deals with can be used to better understand the correlations between the Earth and the people that live on it. Geography is also called the bridge that connects sciences of human and physical sciences. Physical sciences and human sciences are two different subjects that stand one across the other with stark contrasts separating them. Geography sits between the two, comfortably switches and shares focus with one another. It cannot discuss the physical aspects of the Earth by ditching altogether concerns about people. Similarly, it cannot put its focus solely on human without taking into consideration the matter of physical properties of the Earth itself.