Place of birth of Man in the Cave of Malapa – The Malapa Cave is located 15 kilometers northeast of South Africa, or 9.3 mi near South Africa. This cave is famous all over the world because of the latest findings of human’s closest ancestors. Lee R. Berger was the person who began to discover the Cave of Malapa in South Africa.
The Malapa Cave is now also known as the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage in South Africa. There you can find the findings of the Malapa expedition. Fossils from the expedition were also found and stored there.
What Did They Find on the Malapa Fossil Site?
During the discovery, Prof. Lee R. Berger discovered more than 100 fossil fragments. Although this is not a match with the number of online gambling games offered by https://multibet88.online, this is a very large number for scientific discoveries. Details of the findings are:
The first thing they found was a 6-partial human skeleton. That shows about the discovery of undiscovered humans who lived in an earlier era, or maybe millions of years ago. This is also called a good start of Prof.’s research. Berger.
Besides some partial skeletons found in the Malapa Cave, they also found 220 Bone Fragments in the same cave. This finding led them to other cave discoveries. They also conducted research for more than 10 caves around the Malapa Cave. Now the Malapa area is also referred to as the Cradle of World Human Heritage in South Africa.
In 2010, they found 220 Sediba Australopithecus bone fragments before they continued other research in the same area. Now Australopithecus Sediba is also called the direct ancestor of humans.
Types of Findings in the Malapa Cave
In Malapa Cave, they found several types of fossils. They are Holotype and also Paratype. Look at this:
-Malapa Homini 1
The first finding was Malapa Homini 1, and then they named it MH-1. MH-1 is a fossil holotype in the Malapa Cave. MH-1 was found as a Juvenile Male called Karabo. This is the first species found at the Malapa Fossil Site.
-Malapa Homini 2
After finding MH-1 as a Holotype, they found Malapa Homini 2 which they later named MH-2 as a fossil Paratipe in the Cave of Malapa. MH-2 is known as an adult woman. After MH-2, they also found other species of adult males and 3 babies. They are found in the same area as MH-1 and MH-2.
Further research from Prof. Lee R. Berger still continues to find other species that may be related to humans. In certain areas, more than 2 species have been found. Since 2010, they have continued to elaborate on humanity’s new findings.
Geography: The Branches
Geography: The Branches – Geography, which means earth description, is one of the fields of science that will be focused on studying the land, the features, and any phenomenon of the earth. This particular subject had been introduced by a famous scientist called Eratosthenes (276 to 194 BC). Since then, many believed that geography could be the right discipline science that helps people to understand the complexity of human and the nature so well. Aside of that, it can also be the best reference that you can take when you want to find out about the impacts of the dynamic changes of the people and their environment.
Then, it will be so much better for you to know that geography is actually divided into several branches. One of them is the physical geography which will be emphasized on understanding the physical problems that happens on the earth, such as the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, climatology, environmental management, oceanography, and so many more. So then, all of them will be commonly used for analyzing the condition of the earth in order to get the best solution, so that people can solve the issues nicely. Furthermore, the other branch of geography is the human geography. This specific thing is actually about studying all aspects happen in the human society, which can be from the patterns to the political aspect of the society. So, this field of geography will allow you to explore all the factors that influence the community in a specific region deeply.
Well, both of the branches are actually some of many broad fields of geography that make the scientists able to read the signs shown by the society and the nature. Basically, they all can be combined in order to create the comprehensive data or information related to the environmental geography which tells you about the interactions of the human and the environment surely.
Excavation of Homo Naledi by Prof. Lee R. Berger
Homo Naledi is one of the extinct species of Hominini or well known as Hominins. Hominis itself is the sub-family from tribe of Hominae. Gorilla is a kind from Hominins species. In early 2013, Prof. Lee R. Berger found fossils in another side of Malapa Cave in Cradle of Humankind World Heritage. The exact location is near South Africa where everything is exotic and becomes a serious theme for movies and games.
– Rising Star Cave
The expedition in another side of Malapa Cave is called Rising Star Cave. Lead by Prof Lee R. Berger himself, this expedition was focused on the excavation of Homo Naledi fossil that is found inside the cave. This expedition held for almost 2 years, around 2013 until 2015, and it became a popular expedition among scientists, just as popular as online gambling for active players during the years. Here is the result of the expedition:
- The Location
Located in Gauteng Province of South Africa, Prof. Lee R. Berger and team found that Homo Naledi is different kind of fossil that need to be excavated soon. The exact area o fit is 800 meters south-west Swartkrans of Malmani Dolomites, around Bloubank river valley.
- The Excavation
The excavation of Homo Naledi itself happen around 2013 û 2015. It took almost 3 years because the team had to excavate more than 1.550pecimen that found in the cave. However, this expedition still the part of Cradle of Humankind World Heritage in South Africa, near the Malapa cave where Australopithecus had been found in 2010. The age of Homo Naledi predicted around 2 million years ago. But the latest study said that the factual age of Homo Naledi is around 250.000 years. The evidence of Homo Naledi’s age is shown in the characteristics of its fossil.
– The Characteristics of Homo Naledi
The research found that Homo Naledi is still one of the sub-family of Hominae tribe. However, there are many different characteristics of another kinds of fossil and Homo Naledi. Here is some characteristics of Homo Naledi:
- Not the Closest Ancestor of Human
Look from the shape of the fossil, Homo Naledi is not the closest ancestor of human. The shape is kind a different with homoÆs fossil.
- Body Size
The finding shows that Homo Naledi has smaller body size than human itself. It shows that they are not realy related to each other.
- Skull and Endocranial Volume
The other evidence shows that Homo Naledi has smaller endocranial and head volume than human, or een with Australopithecus.
Even Homo Naledi has some differences with Australopithecus, but both of them still have the same anatomy. It shows that theystill came from the same sub familyof Hominini. The skull size also has the same size with early Homo species that found in another place of Malapa Fossil-Site.
Why You Have to Study Geography?
It will always be a great idea for you to study geography because it will definitely offer you the wide range of options when you want to build your career which can be a climatologist, an expert of environmental management, and so on. Aside of that, there are some other reasons why you have to study geography for sure. Then, what are they? If you really want to know the answers, you better check them out below.
Well, one of the reasons why you better study geography is that it can help you to find out how geography in the past time was. So then, you will have the chance to learn how it keeps changing, and also how it influences the environment, ideas, cultures, and so on. Not only that, you will see that the changing geography can also give the impressive impacts to the evolution of the people as well. So, all of them will make you able to understand all the aspects in the life in the nicer way. Furthermore, the other reason that you have to really consider when you want to Study Geography is that it will make you appreciate the earth as your homeland in the better way. Then, somehow it will make you realize it is so important for you to preserve or use the resources of the planet wisely. Thus, you can make sure that all of them can really suit our needs without making any damages to the environment so badly.
In conclusion, those are some of the reasons why geography becomes a subject that you have to learn. All of them can also be the advantageous things that will excite you so well. So, it is obvious that it will never be something that you will regret when you decide to take geography as your main subject.
Learning Geography: The Basic Techniques
Learning geography is a very nice thing to do as it will give you the chance to understand the earth and the societies in the better way. So then, you will able to find out the interactions that might happen between the environment and the people, and also how the natural phenomena can influence the surface of the earth and the ideas of the people in a particular place. Nevertheless, you have to make sure that you do the right basic techniques in order to get the best knowledge of this subject. So, what are they? Let’s find out below.
Well, one of the basic techniques that you have to do when you learn geography is observation. This kind of technique is so suitable for you who really want to find out the geographic phenomena deeply. So then, you will get the perfect and accurate representations of the complexities happen on earth. In this case, there are still so many geographers that do the traditional on the ground contact to the subject through exploration and field observation. Furthermore, the other technique that you have to be able to do is display analysis technique. As a geography learner, you have to be able to minimally read and understand the information that is shown on the various geographic displays, which can be from maps to graphics, no matter if they are the traditional or the modern ones. So then, you can capture all the important things on the display without any mistakes at all.
After putting it all together, those are some of the basic techniques that you have to do when you want to learn geography in the best way. All of them will give you the right and proven information and data that you need for sure. So, you can make it the reliable sources to develop your knowledge and the science itself nicely.
The Benefits You Get from Studying Geography
Do you look for the best subject to learn at the university? If you do, it will be so recommended for you to choose geography. One of the reasons why you have to choose this subject is because it can provide you so broad fields that you can explore, which can be ranging from climatology to ecology. Besides, there are also the various benefits that you can get when you learn this science. Then, in case you are so willing to figure them out, you have to keep reading below.
Well, one of the notable benefits that you gain when you study geography is that it has the basic two branches of geography that you can choose, whether it is the physical or the human geography. Then, after choosing of the branches, you will find that each of them will be offering you the numerous fields to explore based on your passion. So then, you will always have the big chance to be the excellent geographer with the different degrees of types of geography.
Moreover, the other benefits is that the study of geography will give you the opportunity to make research, so that you can develop your knowledge and get some inspirations and new techniques to support your scientific paper. In addition from it can also give you more the scholarship and studying abroad opportunity, which can be Europe, Australasia, North America, and so on. Thus, you try to do your best to get the valuable experiences that you might need when you join the industry.
After putting it all together, those are some remarkable benefits that you can get when you learn geography. Hopefully, all of them can be the good considerations that you can take when you want to continue your study to the university. So then, there is nothing that you will regret in the future.
How to Write a Good Geography Paper
When you study geography, writing a paper about it can be one of the most challenging things for sure. Then, in case you have a little problem when writing your geography paper, it is so much recommended for you to follow these some steps to help you to do your work in the easier way. Let’s check them out.
The first thing that you have to do is to choose a particular topic that you are interested in. In this case, it is a must for you to have the simple and specific topic that has to be focused on something that you want to observe. It is so much necessary for you to do so that you never make your paper out of the topic. Furthermore, the second step that you have to do is that you have to start your research. In this case, it is a very great idea for you to gather a lot of information related to your topic you have chosen before. You can go to the local library or look for some journals on the internet in order to gather all the info you need.
Moreover, you can start your paper now by making an introduction. In this phase, you have to make it simple so that it can state your topic clearly. Afterwards, you can begin writing the body where you have to make an essay based on the info you have got before. However, you have to ensure that you write them using your own words. Not only that, do not ever forget to cite your sources to avoid any plagiarism. Lastly, you and have to make a conclusion which sum up all the important points of your paper. Additionally, it is a must for you revise the paper before you submit it to your geography teacher.
Things You Have to Know about Geography
Geography can be defined as one of the most popular sciences that many people are really interested in. It is all because this particular subject can offer the broad fields and opportunities to have the bright career when you join the professional world. Then, there are various other things that you have to know about geography which you can find out below.
Well, one of many things that you have to know about geography is that it is actually different from geology. In the simple words, geography has been divided in to two different branches which are the physical geography and the human geography.
The physical geography will be emphasized on studying the surface, the landscapes, and the features of the earth. Then, the human geography will be learning about the cultures, the ideas, the economy, and the politic of the people in a specific place. Aside of that, it will also make you study about how the society and the environment influence each other. On the other hand, geology is actually more focused on studying the deeper parts of the earth such as volcanoes, plate tectonics, the internal process of the earth, the history of the earth since quite long time ago.
Next, the other thing that you have to know about geography is that it cannot be separated from any other sciences, which can be like biology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, and so on. So, you will never run out of things to observe and explore one you have studied about the type of science.
After putting it all together, those are several things that you have to know when you decide to learn geography. All of them can be the nice information that will make you have the more notable knowledge of the subject for sure. Thus, you can find out what you can do when you become a professional geographer.
The Brief History of Geography
Geography is one of the most popular discipline sciences that attract the attention of many people now. Some thinks that this subject is so interesting and can give more chances to explore the earth and its phenomena. Then, some others think that it can lead them to the bright and promising careers in the future. However, do you know how the history of geography began? In case you really want to figure it out, you better continue reading below.
In the beginning, the people of Greece were the ones who actively explored geography to be a science and a philosophy in their lives. Then, they also used this subject as the references as they always tried to explore new lands. Even, they could improve this science to the higher level because there were so many great people who contributed to the explorations, such as Aristotle, Herodotus, Hipparchus, Eratosthenes, and so on. Furthermore, the interest in geography got increased significantly especially in Europe after the journey of Marco Polo during the middle age period.
Then, the best thing about it was when a great voyage during the Renaissance to the 17th century made the people have the more accurate imagery of the earth. It can be proven by a world map created by Bernhardus Varenius and Gerardus Mercator. After that, geography had been recognized as one of the discipline sciences that will be learnt on the university since the 18th century. At the same time, the broad fields of geography had developed influenced the views and thoughts of many people greatly.
Thus, based on the brief history of geography above it is clear that geography always get developed as the nature and the society change dynamically. It even links to the various broad fields like ecology, botany, climatology, and etc. So, you will never run out of subject to explore once you have decided to study geography.
Interesting Facts about Earth
Learning geography is interesting. This subject is also important to learn in school. this is because this subject tells about the earth and its characteristic, and this makes this subject essential to learn. As mathematics, and language, geography and other subjects are main sciences to study. That is why this subject is compulsory in middle school and this is major choice to take in high school. there is big importance of learning this subject.
People will learn about many things in geography. It is not only about the surfaces of the earth. This subject also talks about things under the surface of the earth, including the stones and layers of the earth. It also talks about the things above the surfaces, even the atmosphere and its various layers. There are also many earth phenomena learnt in this subject. That is why this is so important and interesting to learn this subject.
In this case, there are also some interesting geographical facts to learn. This can make people stimulated to learn more about geography. The first fact is about the smallest country in the world. There is a small county in the world, but this country has very essential roles. This is Vatican City or Holy See. This country is very small and it is cannot be compared to even Singapore in Asia continent. Singapore is still bigger than Vatican. Vatican is only around 0.44 kilometer square. This is very small country, but this has important role. It is because Vatican is the home of biggest church in the world. This is the home of Christians and there is Pope as the leader of the Catholic Church. That is why this is small yet important and famous country.
Then, about the earth, this is divided into four hemispheres. There are northern, southern, western, and eastern hemispheres. In this case, there are continents in earth and most of the continents cover maximum of one and a half part of the hemisphere. However, there is Africa that covers all of the four hemispheres. This is interesting and this makes Africa so special since this will have various climates and weathers. Its geographical aspects of this continents may also be complete since there are four characteristic of hemispheres.
Then, about the continent and countries, there is China that is also special in term of its border. About the size, this is one of the biggest countries on earth. Then, this country shares its borders with many countries. There are 14 countries sharing borders with China. This means that this country is bordered by many countries and this make China so special. Its borders include country in Asia and Europe continents.
The Fun Facts about Geography
Geography is a kind of popular science as there are so many people are so interested in learning this specific subject whether it is at school or university. Aside of that, geography actually can give you some fun facts that you better never miss for sure. Then, do you really want to know what they are? If you do, you better find out below.
One of the facts is that geography has so many numerous types of maps which some of them are like the physical maps, the climate maps, the topographic maps, the resource maps, and so many more still. Each of them will definitely give you the accurate information related to the different things. So then, you will be able to find the data that you need in order to support your learning process, explorations, observations, geography paper, and so on. Moreover, the other fun fact about the subject is that many geographers believe that there was a huge continent in the world called Pangaea (means all lands), and then all the seas became one big ocean named Panthalassa which means all seas 200 million years ago. Then, somehow, that continent has been separated and divided in to seven continents that all the people know now. In addition, geography is basically a particular science that will help you to understand how the environment and the people change and give impact to each other. Thus, that is the main reason why there are two branches of geography called the physical and the human geography that you cannot ignore when you learn the subject.
So, those are some of the fun facts about geography that will definitely give you the more information that can make you like this subject better than before. So then, you will find that geography is not such a boring thing to learn and explore.
Some Good Things to Learn in Geography
Geography becomes one of the main subjects to learn by students in middle and high school. This subject is actually interesting, but sometimes people do not know the function and things that they can get from this subject. They only think that this subject is only about rivers, mountains, volcanoes, stones, and other things on earth. They do not find specific purposes of learning this subject. In fact, learning geography is very helpful to develop the knowledge. It is not only about those geographical terms and stuffs, but it is a great way to learn about the country. Even, it can be said that you will be a good citizen when you know geography well. This is because geography is not just a subject, but it tells about citizenship since it talks about the resources owned by the country and potential resources that can be explored for the welfare of the people. Moreover, geography of country will always be main things to discuss, that is why this subject can grow citizenship.
Moreover, learning geography has also relation to the economics of the country. This is very possible to happen since geography also talks about industrialization, energy productions, and the resources owned and found in the country. These are important aspect of the country. Then, learning geography can also help people to understand the distribution of population. People can have better understanding of people in each region and they will be able to know the characteristic since their characteristics are also affected by the geographical aspects. Moreover, this is also related to the history of the country. History of the country can be seen from the pattern of civilization, weather, migration pattern, and other things. These are important aspect in history and these are studied in geography.
Moreover, Members can have larger understanding about the earth, including other countries. Geography does not only focus on a country, but it talks about general things and many kinds of things on earth. In this case, people can understand each characteristic of continents and oceans. They can also learn about the weathers and other things in the other part of the earth. This is very interesting. Learning geography is like having a course about tourism since there can be many things to discuss about other places and these are interesting things. Mountain, volcanoes, caves, and other things are learnt. Even, some special natural phenomena area also learnt in geography. That is why this topic is very important to learn.
What are the Best Topics to Study with Geography?
What does pop in your mind when you think about geography? Is it maps, the surface of the earth, volcanoes, or climates? Well, you have to k now that you are never alone because that is what the most people think about geography. Yet, there are actually so many other interesting topics that you can learn when you study this particular subject. So, letÆs figure them out below.
One of the great topics that you can find out when you learn geography is the human population and food and nutrition security. This specific topic has been one of the most attention grabbing issues among the global society. It can be proven when more than 800 million people from all around the world cannot have enough food each day.
So, by learning geography, you will have the chances to get involved in solving the problems nicely, which can be growing more food and maintaining it to create the better sustainability. Aside of that, you can also learn about the economic, environmental, climate changing factors in order to increase the food and nutrition security in a specific region. Moreover, the other topic that you cannot miss when you study geography is climate change. In the other words, you will be able to find out the best climate service which is focused on giving you the climate information. Then, this information can be used in the making climate decisions and policies. Thus, you can analyze what the best action to take in order to prevent the further effects of climate change as well as possible.
In conclusion, those are some of the topics that will definitely excite you while you are learning geography for sure. So then, it is clear that you will never find this subject boring as you can explore so many numerous topics. Even you can still relate it to the latest issues that happen in the real world.
Interesting Things of Learning Geography
Talking about geography, there are many things to learn about this subject. This subject talks about the earth so there can be many things to understand from this subject. Even, there can be unlimited knowledge to know about this since earth is the thing studied in the subject. This means that there are many things to study and even this is not only about the physical appearance of the earth. This subject also talks about the natural phenomena happened on earth. Earthquake and tsunami are discussed in this subject. Volcanic eruption, tornadoes, and other natural disasters are also discussed and studied in the subject. Moreover, the origin of mountain, volcano, and sea, lake, other things are learnt. That is why this subject becomes so interesting to learn. There can be many things to get from this subject.
In this case, one of the interesting things about geography is that this is an inter-correlated study. This means that this studying geography cannot be only about geography. This subject is also closely related to the sociology and history and that is why these three subjects are categorized as the social science. These three are closely related since things happened in the past and people are very affected by the geographical aspects of the earth. Moreover, learning geography can also help people to know about chemistry, physics, and even biology. These natural sciences are also related to the geography since in geography, people study about the plantations and their distribution, weather, and also phenomena of earth that is closely related to those three subjects. There are still other subjects connected to geography. That is why learning this subject can be so interesting.
Then, learning geography can also make people understand the earth well. For example, by learning geography, people can understand the characteristic of Canada although they do not live in this country. They will know that Canada becomes country with a lot of lakes. Even, it can be said that almost half of the lakes on earth can be found in Canada. That is why 9% of its area are water. There are many lakes in this country and it is around 561 lakes. It is so many lakes for a country. Then, people can also understand that Mt. Everest is the highest peak of earth. However, they will be able to understand also that Mt. Chimborazo is the closest place to the moon. This is because of the geographical structure. This mount is located near equator and there is bulge on the area of this mount and this make this mount has closest distance to the moon.
Good Things Obtained from Learning Geography
For students, there are many subjects to learn at school. There are various subjects and every student may have his or her own preference of the favorite subjects. There are mathematics, language, arts, social and exact sciences. There are still other subjects also that can be learnt in school. In the elementary and middle schools, students cannot choose what they want to learn. All of the subjects are compulsory to learn. Then, in high school, there are some subjects that can be chosen and in this case, geography is one of the main subjects to choose, especially by them who want to study social science. However, when it is in the university level, geography may be less interesting compared to other sciences, such as physics, biology, astronomy, economics, and politics. In fact, geography and the sub-subject in geography is interesting and these are important to learn.
It is true that geography may be less interesting. In fact, there are many things to know and learn about geography. This subject tells students about the earth. This is less popular, but it does not mean that it is not important. because of its importance, geography becomes one of the compulsory subjects to study in the middle schools and it even becomes the main choices of subject to choose. This shows that this is important. it is because people should know well their place. They must know where they live and what are the environments around them. These are studied and learnt in geography. Even, geography is a subject that has correlation with other subjects. Geography is related to the history, sociology, and even economy. Then, this subject has relation to the physics, chemistry, and biology when this talks about weather, natural phenomena, and distribution of plantations or trees. This makes learning geography able to learn about other subjects.
Then, lately, geography is more interesting since there is higher demand for this. People graduated from the study of geography is needed nowadays since earth has many new phenomena and these can be analyzed and discussed by people with title of geography. Of course, this makes better opportunity for jobs. Moreover, this is also very important for the personal navigation skills. Now, there has been GPS to help the navigation, but there can be cases when the GPS cannot be used and the devices run out of power. In this case, people studying geography will not have problem with it. They have navigation skills developed unconsciously when they study geography.
Some Good Reasons of Choosing Geography
Geography becomes one of the main subjects to learn at school. When you are in your middle school, you have this subject as the compulsory subject to take. In the high school, you can have alternative of subjects and still geography is there as one of the major choice. This means that geography is not subjects that can be missed. Geography has importance and that is why this subject is introduced since the middle school and even there is special study for this subject in the university level. Geography learns about earth and things on it. This subject becomes one of the important subjects when you want to know the earth and things above it.
Of course, there are many reasons of choosing this subject. The first one is that this subject help people to learn about the world. Geography does not only learn about things above the earth. It does not only learn about stones, mountains, rivers, and other geographical aspects of earth. It even talks about how the earth moves and the people living on earth. These are discussed. That is why this subjects becomes so interesting since this subject can tell you about the world. This can give you proper understanding about how the earth works and moves. This is important knowledge since you will be able to know to know many things about the earth. Although you do not take this subject in the university, you still can get enough basic understanding about earth from the middle and high school.
Moreover, learning geography also helps you to know many things. Geography learns about things on earth. That is why this is closely related to the other subjects. Although you will not learn all of those subjects specifically, but you will get the basic concepts in relation to the geography. You will learn about biology. Then you will also learn about physics. Math, history, and other subjects are learnt since geography has vast scope of study. That is why learning geography can also make you understand about some other subjects although they are not studied in the special course. Of course, learning this subject is also important since there are big demands of people graduated with this study. There are many job opportunities opened for this subject and this is good thing since you will know earth and you will get paid because of your knowledge. These are some points that can be good reasons of choosing geography.
Some Interesting Facts about Earth to Know
Earth is interesting planet in the universe. This is the planet where human lives and there are lives in this planet. Of course, this planet has many kinds of things to learn and geography is one of the important subjects learning this planet. This subject talks about the earth and it is not only about the surface of the earth. Geography talks about things exist on earth. It talks about mountains and volcanoes. This also talks about oceans, seas, lakes, and even rivers. Then, this subject also learns about the things above the earth, such as the atmosphere and its layers. Things under the surface of the earth are also discussed, such as the layer of earth up to its core. Moreover, there are also natural phenomenon discussed in this subject. Natural disasters such as tornado and volcanic eruptions are discussed. There are also weathers, climates, and even trees and plantations on earth. There are many things to study in this subjects.
Of course, those are important things to understand. In this case, there are also some interesting facts about the earth and these are found because people study geography. First fact is about the highest place. Most of the people must have known that Mt. Everest in Himalaya is the highest peak on earth. This is the highest top in the earth. However, there are 25 places categorized as the highest peaks on earth. The great news is that 19 of those peaks are located on Himalaya. This is very interesting since Himalaya has already had Everest, and there are still 18 other peaks to find in this place. Even, this is more than half of the peaks on earth are found in Himalaya. This is awesome.
Then, there is also a unique country called Nauru. This country is not located on the continent. This county is located in the ocean, specifically in the Pacific Ocean. This country is quite small, but still Vatican City is the smallest country on the earth. The interesting thing is that this country has no official capital. All of the countries on earth has capital city but Nauru is different. This has no capital city and this makes this country special. While even the smallest country has official capital, this small country in the Pacific Ocean does not have it. However, it does not mean that this country has no government offices. There is government and office since this is the condition of the sovereign country. The office is located in Yaren, but this town is not the official capital. No one knows why this city is not made into capital and the country choose to have no capital.
Geography and Its Branches
In the beginning, geography is largely associated with the names of places and cartography. Because of this, it is easy to think that a geographer’s main concern is about drawing maps. In actuality, it is rather more complicated than that. A geographer may have been trained in both cartology and toponymy. Their primary study, however, concerns with the matter of space and temporal database distribution of features, processes, and phenomena as well as the relationships between human and nature. Geography is interdisciplinary because space and place is directly connected with a string of other topics and subjects such as animals and plants, climate, health, and economics. As a field of science, geography has traditionally been categorized into two large subgroups: physical geography and human geography. Physical geography deals with the study of natural environment and the way landforms, water, soil, climate, and organisms interact with each other. Human geography examines the way humans influence, manage, view, and create or build space and environment.
A third subgroup would then manifest as a result of the difference between the two previous categories: the environmental geography. In environmental geography, both physical and human geographies merge, with the interactions between humans and environment as its main focus of study.
Geography is a broad term of field of study. Besides the two aforementioned main divisions, geography has branches and sub-branches with their own focused subjects.
1. Physical geography
Physical geography is geography in its Earth science form. It examines problems found in biosphere (flora and fauna patterns of global scope), pedosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Areas of studies under this category include: biogeography, climatology and meteorology, coastal geography, environmental management, geodesy, geomorphology, glaciology, hydrology and hydrography, landscape ecology, oceanography, pedology, palaeogeography, as well as quaternary science.
2. Human geography
Human geography examines processes and patterns that shape human society. It is related to many aspects including economics, social, cultural, political, and human. Disciplines under this category include: cultural geography, health geography, historical and time geography, political geography and geopolitics, population geography and demography, religion geography, social geography, transportation geography, tourism geography, as well as urban geography.
Approaches toward human geography are presented in various methods including:
a. Behavioral geography
b. Feminist geography
c. Culture theory
3. Integrated geography
Areas it commands include: political ecology, sustainability, environmental management, and emergency management.
Geomatics is an application of computers to cartography and topography.
5. Regional geography
Exploring the Fields of Study Related to Geography
Geography is a broad field of science. It concerns with human, the Earth, and how the two interact with one another. Examinations can be done toward the things occurring in both larger scope of Earth as a planet and smaller, much more focused study of the people living on the planet itself. The presence of many varieties of subdivisions and branches of geography is a testament to how broad and large-scoped the discipline has been since its first inception. Not only that it has spawned numerous branches, fields of studies related to geography have also emerged over the years.
These related fields are based on the geographical principles but their focus study may deviate somewhat away from the traditional geography. Such related fields are:
1. Urban planning, regional planning, and spatial planning
The three subjects rely on geography to determine the best possible way to develop a space (or not to do so) to meet some criteria (preservation of heritage of both natural and built nature, economic opportunities, beauty, and safety). The development of rural areas, cities, and towns could also be categorized as applied geography.
2. Regional science
Regional science is a movement that Walter Isard led in the 1950s. The movement was intended as a way to revolutionize the traditional geography programs that were more descriptive. Regional science is a more quantitative and analytical approach toward geographical questions and problems. The discipline is made up of fields of study that has spatial dimension as its main focus, including environmental quality, landscape ecology, population distribution, human geography, transport and communication, urban and regional planning, location theory, resource management, and regional economics.
3. Interplanetary sciences
The Earth is the traditional object of study in geography. However, as our progress of knowledge has expanded toward the worlds beyond the Earth, the term can also be applied informally to studies of bodies of planets, both within the Solar System and beyond. In this case, geography deals with a system much larger than the Earth itself and in this sense, geography makes up part of cosmology and astronomy. The term for studies of planets other than the Earth would be planetary science. Alternative terms have also been coined such as areology for studies of the planet Mars. However, these alternative terms are still not widely used.
These three fields of study show just how massive and all-encompassing geography can be. It is so broad that it is flexible enough to be used outside of the Earth.
An Introduction to Geography as a Field of Study
As a field of science, geography is derived from a Greek word, geographia, which translates into ôearth descriptionö. Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) was recorded as the first person to use the Greek word of the science field. Geography has a lot to do with study of all kinds of phenomena of Earth, its lands, its inhabitants, and its features. In broader sense, geography is a discipline of science with all-encompassing nature where the practitioners do everything in their power to unravel the complexities of the Earth, the extent of which spans from the subject of the location of objects to the process through which they have changed and originated from.
To discuss about geography means to take into account the two larger branches of it. The first branch of the field is human geography and the second is physical geography. Human geography often deals with studying people, how they function in a community, cultures of some people, economies, and their interactions with their environment, measured through how the relate to space and place. Physical geography, on the other hand, is concerned mainly about natural patterns and processes, including ones found at the atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.
Geography also has four major traditions in how the research into geographical matters is conducted. They are: a) analyses of spatial category of both human and natural phenomena, b) regions and places area studies, c) studies of the relationships between human and land, and d) the sciences of the Earth. All of these four traditions are to be considered historical in relation with geography as a larger field of study owing to their presence since the early development of the science itself.
As geography deals with matters concerning both human and nature, it has been dubbed ôthe world disciplineö. The all-encompassing subjects it deals with can be used to better understand the correlations between the Earth and the people that live on it. Geography is also called the bridge that connects sciences of human and physical sciences. Physical sciences and human sciences are two different subjects that stand one across the other with stark contrasts separating them. Geography sits between the two, comfortably switches and shares focus with one another. It cannot discuss the physical aspects of the Earth by ditching altogether concerns about people. Similarly, it cannot put its focus solely on human without taking into consideration the matter of physical properties of the Earth itself.