Place of birth of Man in the Cave of Malapa – The Malapa Cave is located 15 kilometers northeast of South Africa, or 9.3 mi near South Africa. This cave is famous all over the world because of the latest findings of human’s closest ancestors. Lee R. Berger was the person who began to discover the Cave of Malapa in South Africa.
The Malapa Cave is now also known as the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage in South Africa. There you can find the findings of the Malapa expedition. Fossils from the expedition were also found and stored there.
What Did They Find on the Malapa Fossil Site?
During the discovery, Prof. Lee R. Berger discovered more than 100 fossil fragments. Although this is not a match with the number of online gambling games offered by https://multibet88.online, this is a very large number for scientific discoveries. Details of the findings are:
The first thing they found was a 6-partial human skeleton. That shows about the discovery of undiscovered humans who lived in an earlier era, or maybe millions of years ago. This is also called a good start of Prof.’s research. Berger.
Besides some partial skeletons found in the Malapa Cave, they also found 220 Bone Fragments in the same cave. This finding led them to other cave discoveries. They also conducted research for more than 10 caves around the Malapa Cave. Now the Malapa area is also referred to as the Cradle of World Human Heritage in South Africa.
In 2010, they found 220 Sediba Australopithecus bone fragments before they continued other research in the same area. Now Australopithecus Sediba is also called the direct ancestor of humans.
Types of Findings in the Malapa Cave
In Malapa Cave, they found several types of fossils. They are Holotype and also Paratype. Look at this:
-Malapa Homini 1
The first finding was Malapa Homini 1, and then they named it MH-1. MH-1 is a fossil holotype in the Malapa Cave. MH-1 was found as a Juvenile Male called Karabo. This is the first species found at the Malapa Fossil Site.
-Malapa Homini 2
After finding MH-1 as a Holotype, they found Malapa Homini 2 which they later named MH-2 as a fossil Paratipe in the Cave of Malapa. MH-2 is known as an adult woman. After MH-2, they also found other species of adult males and 3 babies. They are found in the same area as MH-1 and MH-2.
Further research from Prof. Lee R. Berger still continues to find other species that may be related to humans. In certain areas, more than 2 species have been found. Since 2010, they have continued to elaborate on humanity’s new findings.
What does pop in your mind when you think about geography? Is it maps, the surface of the earth, volcanoes, or climates? Well, you have to k now that you are never alone because that is what the most people think about geography. Yet, there are actually so many other interesting topics that you can learn when you study this particular subject. So, letÆs figure them out below.
One of the great topics that you can find out when you learn geography is the human population and food and nutrition security. This specific topic has been one of the most attention grabbing issues among the global society. It can be proven when more than 800 million people from all around the world cannot have enough food each day.
So, by learning geography, you will have the chances to get involved in solving the problems nicely, which can be growing more food and maintaining it to create the better sustainability. Aside of that, you can also learn about the economic, environmental, climate changing factors in order to increase the food and nutrition security in a specific region. Moreover, the other topic that you cannot miss when you study geography is climate change. In the other words, you will be able to find out the best climate service which is focused on giving you the climate information. Then, this information can be used in the making climate decisions and policies. Thus, you can analyze what the best action to take in order to prevent the further effects of climate change as well as possible.
In conclusion, those are some of the topics that will definitely excite you while you are learning geography for sure. So then, it is clear that you will never find this subject boring as you can explore so many numerous topics. Even you can still relate it to the latest issues that happen in the real world.
Talking about geography, there are many things to learn about this subject. This subject talks about the earth so there can be many things to understand from this subject. Even, there can be unlimited knowledge to know about this since earth is the thing studied in the subject. This means that there are many things to study and even this is not only about the physical appearance of the earth. This subject also talks about the natural phenomena happened on earth. Earthquake and tsunami are discussed in this subject. Volcanic eruption, tornadoes, and other natural disasters are also discussed and studied in the subject. Moreover, the origin of mountain, volcano, and sea, lake, other things are learnt. That is why this subject becomes so interesting to learn. There can be many things to get from this subject.
In this case, one of the interesting things about geography is that this is an inter-correlated study. This means that this studying geography cannot be only about geography. This subject is also closely related to the sociology and history and that is why these three subjects are categorized as the social science. These three are closely related since things happened in the past and people are very affected by the geographical aspects of the earth. Moreover, learning geography can also help people to know about chemistry, physics, and even biology. These natural sciences are also related to the geography since in geography, people study about the plantations and their distribution, weather, and also phenomena of earth that is closely related to those three subjects. There are still other subjects connected to geography. That is why learning this subject can be so interesting.
Then, learning geography can also make people understand the earth well. For example, by learning geography, people can understand the characteristic of Canada although they do not live in this country. They will know that Canada becomes country with a lot of lakes. Even, it can be said that almost half of the lakes on earth can be found in Canada. That is why 9% of its area are water. There are many lakes in this country and it is around 561 lakes. It is so many lakes for a country. Then, people can also understand that Mt. Everest is the highest peak of earth. However, they will be able to understand also that Mt. Chimborazo is the closest place to the moon. This is because of the geographical structure. This mount is located near equator and there is bulge on the area of this mount and this make this mount has closest distance to the moon.
For students, there are many subjects to learn at school. There are various subjects and every student may have his or her own preference of the favorite subjects. There are mathematics, language, arts, social and exact sciences. There are still other subjects also that can be learnt in school. In the elementary and middle schools, students cannot choose what they want to learn. All of the subjects are compulsory to learn. Then, in high school, there are some subjects that can be chosen and in this case, geography is one of the main subjects to choose, especially by them who want to study social science. However, when it is in the university level, geography may be less interesting compared to other sciences, such as physics, biology, astronomy, economics, and politics. In fact, geography and the sub-subject in geography is interesting and these are important to learn.
It is true that geography may be less interesting. In fact, there are many things to know and learn about geography. This subject tells students about the earth. This is less popular, but it does not mean that it is not important. because of its importance, geography becomes one of the compulsory subjects to study in the middle schools and it even becomes the main choices of subject to choose. This shows that this is important. it is because people should know well their place. They must know where they live and what are the environments around them. These are studied and learnt in geography. Even, geography is a subject that has correlation with other subjects. Geography is related to the history, sociology, and even economy. Then, this subject has relation to the physics, chemistry, and biology when this talks about weather, natural phenomena, and distribution of plantations or trees. This makes learning geography able to learn about other subjects.
Then, lately, geography is more interesting since there is higher demand for this. People graduated from the study of geography is needed nowadays since earth has many new phenomena and these can be analyzed and discussed by people with title of geography. Of course, this makes better opportunity for jobs. Moreover, this is also very important for the personal navigation skills. Now, there has been GPS to help the navigation, but there can be cases when the GPS cannot be used and the devices run out of power. In this case, people studying geography will not have problem with it. They have navigation skills developed unconsciously when they study geography.
Geography becomes one of the main subjects to learn at school. When you are in your middle school, you have this subject as the compulsory subject to take. In the high school, you can have alternative of subjects and still geography is there as one of the major choice. This means that geography is not subjects that can be missed. Geography has importance and that is why this subject is introduced since the middle school and even there is special study for this subject in the university level. Geography learns about earth and things on it. This subject becomes one of the important subjects when you want to know the earth and things above it.
Of course, there are many reasons of choosing this subject. The first one is that this subject help people to learn about the world. Geography does not only learn about things above the earth. It does not only learn about stones, mountains, rivers, and other geographical aspects of earth. It even talks about how the earth moves and the people living on earth. These are discussed. That is why this subjects becomes so interesting since this subject can tell you about the world. This can give you proper understanding about how the earth works and moves. This is important knowledge since you will be able to know to know many things about the earth. Although you do not take this subject in the university, you still can get enough basic understanding about earth from the middle and high school.
Moreover, learning geography also helps you to know many things. Geography learns about things on earth. That is why this is closely related to the other subjects. Although you will not learn all of those subjects specifically, but you will get the basic concepts in relation to the geography. You will learn about biology. Then you will also learn about physics. Math, history, and other subjects are learnt since geography has vast scope of study. That is why learning geography can also make you understand about some other subjects although they are not studied in the special course. Of course, learning this subject is also important since there are big demands of people graduated with this study. There are many job opportunities opened for this subject and this is good thing since you will know earth and you will get paid because of your knowledge. These are some points that can be good reasons of choosing geography.
Earth is interesting planet in the universe. This is the planet where human lives and there are lives in this planet. Of course, this planet has many kinds of things to learn and geography is one of the important subjects learning this planet. This subject talks about the earth and it is not only about the surface of the earth. Geography talks about things exist on earth. It talks about mountains and volcanoes. This also talks about oceans, seas, lakes, and even rivers. Then, this subject also learns about the things above the earth, such as the atmosphere and its layers. Things under the surface of the earth are also discussed, such as the layer of earth up to its core. Moreover, there are also natural phenomenon discussed in this subject. Natural disasters such as tornado and volcanic eruptions are discussed. There are also weathers, climates, and even trees and plantations on earth. There are many things to study in this subjects.
Of course, those are important things to understand. In this case, there are also some interesting facts about the earth and these are found because people study geography. First fact is about the highest place. Most of the people must have known that Mt. Everest in Himalaya is the highest peak on earth. This is the highest top in the earth. However, there are 25 places categorized as the highest peaks on earth. The great news is that 19 of those peaks are located on Himalaya. This is very interesting since Himalaya has already had Everest, and there are still 18 other peaks to find in this place. Even, this is more than half of the peaks on earth are found in Himalaya. This is awesome.
Then, there is also a unique country called Nauru. This country is not located on the continent. This county is located in the ocean, specifically in the Pacific Ocean. This country is quite small, but still Vatican City is the smallest country on the earth. The interesting thing is that this country has no official capital. All of the countries on earth has capital city but Nauru is different. This has no capital city and this makes this country special. While even the smallest country has official capital, this small country in the Pacific Ocean does not have it. However, it does not mean that this country has no government offices. There is government and office since this is the condition of the sovereign country. The office is located in Yaren, but this town is not the official capital. No one knows why this city is not made into capital and the country choose to have no capital.
In the beginning, geography is largely associated with the names of places and cartography. Because of this, it is easy to think that a geographer’s main concern is about drawing maps. In actuality, it is rather more complicated than that. A geographer may have been trained in both cartology and toponymy. Their primary study, however, concerns with the matter of space and temporal database distribution of features, processes, and phenomena as well as the relationships between human and nature. Geography is interdisciplinary because space and place is directly connected with a string of other topics and subjects such as animals and plants, climate, health, and economics. As a field of science, geography has traditionally been categorized into two large subgroups: physical geography and human geography. Physical geography deals with the study of natural environment and the way landforms, water, soil, climate, and organisms interact with each other. Human geography examines the way humans influence, manage, view, and create or build space and environment.
A third subgroup would then manifest as a result of the difference between the two previous categories: the environmental geography. In environmental geography, both physical and human geographies merge, with the interactions between humans and environment as its main focus of study.
Geography is a broad term of field of study. Besides the two aforementioned main divisions, geography has branches and sub-branches with their own focused subjects.
1. Physical geography
Physical geography is geography in its Earth science form. It examines problems found in biosphere (flora and fauna patterns of global scope), pedosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Areas of studies under this category include: biogeography, climatology and meteorology, coastal geography, environmental management, geodesy, geomorphology, glaciology, hydrology and hydrography, landscape ecology, oceanography, pedology, palaeogeography, as well as quaternary science.
2. Human geography
Human geography examines processes and patterns that shape human society. It is related to many aspects including economics, social, cultural, political, and human. Disciplines under this category include: cultural geography, health geography, historical and time geography, political geography and geopolitics, population geography and demography, religion geography, social geography, transportation geography, tourism geography, as well as urban geography.
Approaches toward human geography are presented in various methods including:
a. Behavioral geography
b. Feminist geography
c. Culture theory
3. Integrated geography
Areas it commands include: political ecology, sustainability, environmental management, and emergency management.
Geomatics is an application of computers to cartography and topography.
5. Regional geography
Geography is a broad field of science. It concerns with human, the Earth, and how the two interact with one another. Examinations can be done toward the things occurring in both larger scope of Earth as a planet and smaller, much more focused study of the people living on the planet itself. The presence of many varieties of subdivisions and branches of geography is a testament to how broad and large-scoped the discipline has been since its first inception. Not only that it has spawned numerous branches, fields of studies related to geography have also emerged over the years.
These related fields are based on the geographical principles but their focus study may deviate somewhat away from the traditional geography. Such related fields are:
1. Urban planning, regional planning, and spatial planning
The three subjects rely on geography to determine the best possible way to develop a space (or not to do so) to meet some criteria (preservation of heritage of both natural and built nature, economic opportunities, beauty, and safety). The development of rural areas, cities, and towns could also be categorized as applied geography.
2. Regional science
Regional science is a movement that Walter Isard led in the 1950s. The movement was intended as a way to revolutionize the traditional geography programs that were more descriptive. Regional science is a more quantitative and analytical approach toward geographical questions and problems. The discipline is made up of fields of study that has spatial dimension as its main focus, including environmental quality, landscape ecology, population distribution, human geography, transport and communication, urban and regional planning, location theory, resource management, and regional economics.
3. Interplanetary sciences
The Earth is the traditional object of study in geography. However, as our progress of knowledge has expanded toward the worlds beyond the Earth, the term can also be applied informally to studies of bodies of planets, both within the Solar System and beyond. In this case, geography deals with a system much larger than the Earth itself and in this sense, geography makes up part of cosmology and astronomy. The term for studies of planets other than the Earth would be planetary science. Alternative terms have also been coined such as areology for studies of the planet Mars. However, these alternative terms are still not widely used.
These three fields of study show just how massive and all-encompassing geography can be. It is so broad that it is flexible enough to be used outside of the Earth.
As a field of science, geography is derived from a Greek word, geographia, which translates into ôearth descriptionö. Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) was recorded as the first person to use the Greek word of the science field. Geography has a lot to do with study of all kinds of phenomena of Earth, its lands, its inhabitants, and its features. In broader sense, geography is a discipline of science with all-encompassing nature where the practitioners do everything in their power to unravel the complexities of the Earth, the extent of which spans from the subject of the location of objects to the process through which they have changed and originated from.
To discuss about geography means to take into account the two larger branches of it. The first branch of the field is human geography and the second is physical geography. Human geography often deals with studying people, how they function in a community, cultures of some people, economies, and their interactions with their environment, measured through how the relate to space and place. Physical geography, on the other hand, is concerned mainly about natural patterns and processes, including ones found at the atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.
Geography also has four major traditions in how the research into geographical matters is conducted. They are: a) analyses of spatial category of both human and natural phenomena, b) regions and places area studies, c) studies of the relationships between human and land, and d) the sciences of the Earth. All of these four traditions are to be considered historical in relation with geography as a larger field of study owing to their presence since the early development of the science itself.
As geography deals with matters concerning both human and nature, it has been dubbed ôthe world disciplineö. The all-encompassing subjects it deals with can be used to better understand the correlations between the Earth and the people that live on it. Geography is also called the bridge that connects sciences of human and physical sciences. Physical sciences and human sciences are two different subjects that stand one across the other with stark contrasts separating them. Geography sits between the two, comfortably switches and shares focus with one another. It cannot discuss the physical aspects of the Earth by ditching altogether concerns about people. Similarly, it cannot put its focus solely on human without taking into consideration the matter of physical properties of the Earth itself.