Place of birth of Man in the Cave of Malapa – The Malapa Cave is located 15 kilometers northeast of South Africa, or 9.3 mi near South Africa. This cave is famous all over the world because of the latest findings of human’s closest ancestors. Lee R. Berger was the person who began to discover the Cave of Malapa in South Africa.
The Malapa Cave is now also known as the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage in South Africa. There you can find the findings of the Malapa expedition. Fossils from the expedition were also found and stored there.
What Did They Find on the Malapa Fossil Site?
During the discovery, Prof. Lee R. Berger discovered more than 100 fossil fragments. Although this is not a match with the number of online gambling games offered by https://multibet88.online, this is a very large number for scientific discoveries. Details of the findings are:
The first thing they found was a 6-partial human skeleton. That shows about the discovery of undiscovered humans who lived in an earlier era, or maybe millions of years ago. This is also called a good start of Prof.’s research. Berger.
Besides some partial skeletons found in the Malapa Cave, they also found 220 Bone Fragments in the same cave. This finding led them to other cave discoveries. They also conducted research for more than 10 caves around the Malapa Cave. Now the Malapa area is also referred to as the Cradle of World Human Heritage in South Africa.
In 2010, they found 220 Sediba Australopithecus bone fragments before they continued other research in the same area. Now Australopithecus Sediba is also called the direct ancestor of humans.
Types of Findings in the Malapa Cave
In Malapa Cave, they found several types of fossils. They are Holotype and also Paratype. Look at this:
-Malapa Homini 1
The first finding was Malapa Homini 1, and then they named it MH-1. MH-1 is a fossil holotype in the Malapa Cave. MH-1 was found as a Juvenile Male called Karabo. This is the first species found at the Malapa Fossil Site.
-Malapa Homini 2
After finding MH-1 as a Holotype, they found Malapa Homini 2 which they later named MH-2 as a fossil Paratipe in the Cave of Malapa. MH-2 is known as an adult woman. After MH-2, they also found other species of adult males and 3 babies. They are found in the same area as MH-1 and MH-2.
Further research from Prof. Lee R. Berger still continues to find other species that may be related to humans. In certain areas, more than 2 species have been found. Since 2010, they have continued to elaborate on humanity’s new findings.
Lee Rogers Berger is a South African paleoanthropologist born in America. Usually Lee Rogers Berger is always famous for his inventions. It’s no wonder that there are so many discoveries that can be found.
The average discovery that is owned by Lee Rogers Berger has the type Australopithecus Sediba Malapa. Usually Lee Rogers Berger also had time to lead in the expedition of a new star on the excavation of homo naledi. How? Want to know what the discussion is about?
Lee Rogers Berger is a man who was born in Shawnee Mission, Kansas, U.S., December 22, 1965. Previously, he had continued his education at Georgia Southern University, and the University Of Witwatersrand. Now he is 55 years old and has children named Megan and Matthew from his marriage to Jacqueline Berger. When talking about Lee Rogers Berger, of course, he is not only famous for his inventions. But Lee Rogers Berger is also famous for his charming public charm. On average, Lee Rogers Berger’s inventions are easily accessible to the public. Even Lee Rogers Bergerk makes hundreds of talks per year. Uniquely, Lee Rogers Berger has had a close relationship with National Geographic for a long time. Especially Lee Rogers Berger was seen in various events to his documentaries. His early life began with Lee Rogers Berger who was born in Shawnee Mission, Kansas in 1965. Then began to move and grew up outside Sylvania, Georgia in the United States. Then Lee Rogers Berger began moving on to become a Boy Scout, America’s Future Farmer, and president of Georgia. Then in 1984, Berger began to be named a Georgia youth conservationist. This is because of its activities that always preserve turtles that are already threatened with extinction. Many say that Lee Rogers Berger is an honorable Eagle Scout. Lee Rogers Berger also got the Boy Scouts of America medal of honor for saving lives in 1987. After graduating from Georgia Southern University in 1989, Lee Rogers Berger earned a degree in anthropology. Currently, Lee Rogers Berger is conducting doctoral studies in paleoanthropology at the University of the Witwatersrand (WITS) in South Africa under Professor Philip Tobias. At the time, he was focusing his research on an early hominin shoulder girdle. Then graduated in 1994, and in 1991 began doing long-term work on the Gladysvale site. Since then, his team has managed to find the remains of his first early hominins.
Lee Rogers Berger is now a postdoctoral researcher and research officer at the University of the Witwatersrand in 1995. In addition, Lee Rogers Berger is already the leader of the Paleoanthropology Research Group. Lee Rogers Berger was also responsible for excavating hominin fossils such as Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, and Gladysvale. Then in 2004, Lee Rogers Berger was promoted to Reader in Human Evolution and the public Understanding of Science. Currently, Lee Rogers Berger is still a research professor on the same topic. Especially at the Evolutionary Studies Institute and the Center of Excellence in Paleosciences (CoE Pal) at WITS. Meanwhile, if in office, he began serving as an executive officer.
Those are some of the discussions that can be given about Lee Rogers Berger. Now you can understand better after hearing some of the explanations. How? Already understand, not with the explanation above?
Prof. Lee R. Berger is an American-born paleoanthropologist who currently resides in South Africa. He was born on December 22, 1965. He is also active in various activities and documentaries made by the National Geographic Explorer. As a paleoanthropological scientist, Berger has a great service. This is because he has found many historical fossils that can explain life in the past. In addition, some of these fossils were found with their own stories. The following are some of the findings by Prof. Lee R. Berger during his research period
One of the places that became the focus of research by Prof. Lee R. Berger is the Malapa Cave or also known as the Malapa Cave. This cave is located in South Africa, exactly 15 km to the northeast. One of the interesting things about this place is the discovery of ancient human fossils that are very similar to today’s humans. Thus, this place is also known as The Cradle of Humankind World Heritage in South Africa. Berger was one of the people who led the Malapa Caves expedition for the first time. During his research in the Malapa Caves, Berger has found more than 100 fossil parts. Some of these fossils can be grouped into several parts such as the framework (part of the human skeleton), bones found around the Malapa cave, and 220 bone parts from Australopithecus Sediba. In this Malapa cave, Berger’s team also found several other types of fossils, namely Malapa Homini 1 or MH-1 and Malapa Homini 2 or MH-2. Malapa Homini 1 is a holotype fossil. While Malapa Homini 2 is a paratype fossil that has an adult female sex.
In addition to the expedition in the Malapa Cave, Berger continued his research in another place known as the Rising Star Cave System. This place is one of those hidden places that was never known before. Berger began research at this site on September 13, 2013 with two cave explorers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker. At first, Berger had difficulty when going to do research because he could not access parts of the cave. So, he invited other researchers to carry out excavations in the cave room in November 2013. As a result, as many as 1550 fossils were found from the cave. The fossils were then exhibited in a workshop held in 2014 with the collaboration of other researchers. Until 2015, the fossil he found was given the name Homo Nalendi, a new species of hominin.
Berger is one of the researchers who actively publish his research. Thus, some of his research results have been named the Top 100 Science Stories of the Year by Discover Magazine. In addition, Prof. Lee R Burger also received various awards such as the National Press Photographers Association Humanitarian Award Winner in 1987. He also received an award from the Academy of Achievement, namely the Golden Plate Award. His awards continued in 1997 where he was awarded The First National Geographic Society Prize for Research and Exploration by the National Geographic Society in Washington D.C. For his success in making a number of important discoveries and services in documentaries, in 2016, the Times awarded Berger as one of the 100 most influential people in the world.
For people who are in the field of paleoanthropology, the name Prof. Lee R. Berger is a familiar name for them. Why? Prof. Lee R. Berger or also better known as Berger is one of the greatest paleoanthropologists who actively produces many scientific works and finds various kinds of fossils around the world. Therefore, the research study proposed by Berger becomes one of the references for other scientists in the field of paleoanthropology. In addition, Berger also often appears in various documentaries presented by National Geographic. Another thing that characterizes Berger is the large number of research results that he publishes in Open Access mode. This makes it easier for other scientists to read what he has found and develop other findings.
Prof. Lee R. Berger was born on December 22, 1965. He was born in America and has South African ancestry. He studied Bachelor Degree at Georgia Southern University and graduated in 1989 majoring in Anthropology/Archeology with a specialization in Geology. He then continued his Doctoral Degree education at the University of Witwatersrand (Wits) in the field of Palaeoanthropology. He conducted research under Professor Philip Tobias and graduated in 1994. Previously, in 1991 he had started his research at the Gladysvale site to find the remains of the first hominims to exist in South Africa. Thus, in 1933 he joined the Paleo-Anthropology Research Unit (PARU) which is now known as the Evolutionary Sciences Institute or ESI in Wits.
After graduating, Berger began a research career in paleoanthropology by joining the Palaeo-Anthropological Scientific Trust (PAST) as Executive Officer. He did this from 1994 to 2001. Subsequently, he started his career in various organizations such as the Royal Society of South Africa, Northern Branch from 1996 to 1998. He also joined the Fulbright Commission, South African in 2005. Meanwhile, in 19967 he was also appointed adjunct professor in the Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy at Duke University. Meanwhile, in 1998 he was appointed as an honorary assistant professor at the University of Arkansas in the Department of Anthropology.
Berger is one of the paleoanthropological scientists who has made many discoveries such as the discovery of fossils from Palau, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo naledi. Therefore, there are many research journal publications that he writes and publishes with his publishing team. Some of them are Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa (2015) and Australopithecus sediba: a new species of Homo-like australopith from South Africa (2010). In addition, Berger has also published several research books, namely Redrawing the Family Tree?, Visions of the Past, Towards Gondwana Alive: promoting biodiversity and stemming the sixth extinction, In The Footsteps of Eve (written with Brett Hilton-Barber), Change Starts in Africa (in South Africa the Good News), Working and Guiding in the Cradle of Humankind, The Official Field Guide to the Cradle of Humankind: Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Environs World Heritage Site, The Concise Guide to Kruger, The Skull in the Rock: How a Scientist, a Boy, and Google Earth Opened a New Window on Human Origins, and Almost Human: The Astonishing Tale of Homo naledi and the Discovery That Changed Our Human Story.
Who does not know the professor Lee Rogers Berger Of course the fans of discovery must be familiar with him. He is a South African paleoanthropologist or paleontologist who was born on December 22, 1965 in Shawnee Mission, Kansas, United States. He is often credited with discovering the fossils of primitive hominin species and the fossils of Australopithecus Sediba. Some historians reveal that the findings are more directed at the early humans of the genus Homo and the genus Australopithecus.
Lee Berger then moved to Sylvania and Savanah, Georgia to continue his final term of study. And after earning his BA in anthropology at South Georgia University in 1989. He also continued his career with the South African paleoanthropologist, Phillip V. Tobias at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. After that Berger earned his Ph.D. in the field of paleoanthropology in 1994 and one year later he was immediately appointed by the department of human anatomy and biology at the university to become a postdoctoral inventor.
In mid-1996, Berger experienced a university career advancement at the School of Anatomical Sciences as director of the paleoanthropology research group. A few years later he served as a professor in the anthropology department of Duke University in 1997 and Arkansas University in 1998. In the end he became a very vital role in the School of Geosciences and the Institute for Human Evolution at the university in 2004.
Lee Rogers Berger’s Early Research
Lee Berger started his initial research in 1995. He involved several colleagues to publish his first paper entitled “Children of Taung” from fossils of A. africanus which are about 2.5 million years old. The find took place at the Gladysvale Cave site in South Africa.
Over the years, Berger has often made various discoveries. However, in 2006, he combed the Ucheliungs Cave in Palau and managed to find several small human fossils. Further research also identified that the genus Homo has emerged which according to experts is a population of Homo sapiens.
Discovery of Australopithecus sediba
In 2008, Berger started his new expedition by visiting the Malapa Caves in Johannesburg. Matthew Berger, Berger’s 9-year-old son has discovered a series of hominin collarbones and jawbones. Then he also found a female skeleton that was still intact and called it Australopithecus sediba.
Then he and his team conducted a follow-up examination of the skeleton. They say that the fossil has the same characteristics as the human body today. They saw fragments of uranium in the fossil, which was about 1.6 million years ago. Their findings confirm that Australopithecus sediba is a descendant of Homo erectus.
Discovery of Homo naledi
In 2013 and 2014, Berger and his team again explored the Rising Star caves in South Africa. They managed to find about 1,400 fossils of a new species and named it Homo naledi. The characteristics of these fossils are not much different from those of Homo and Australopithecus species. 3 years later, Berger published his first book entitled “Almost Human The Astonishing Tale of Homo Naledi and Discovery That Changed Our Human Story”.
Lee Berger received his first award as the National Geographic Society for Exploration and Research in 1997. Since then, he has been founding trustee of the Jane Goodall Trust and secretary of the Royal Society of South Africa. And in 2001, he became an important member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Fossils are remains of ancient human bones that are probably still around today. However, not all inventors are able to find these findings easily. Because the age of the earth is too old, plus there are many strong buildings that are getting stronger around the earth. However, this is not too impossible for paleoanthropologists, Professor Lee Roberts Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa and geologist, Professor David Roberts of the Council for Geoscience.
The two had found several skeletons of fossilized footprints named Eve around the coast of Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa in 1995. They have estimated that these bones are human female footprints about 117,000 years ago. Anatomically, they are the oldest air footprints of the modern human era. They also claim that these footprints leave fossils that are quite difficult to find.
They had announced the findings and documented in the “South African Journal of Science” event in August 1997. Both tell that the footprints came from sand dunes that had been hit by rainstorms for years. Its location has been found in southwestern South Africa in the West Coast National Park. The two also found other footprints around the boulder right on the outskirts of Langebaan Lagoon close to Atlantic Beach. Then they preserved the mold before being immortalized at the South African Museum in Cape Town for a concrete replica and refuge on the banks of Langebaan.
Then they identified the footprints in the very early days of the presence of modern Homo Sapiens. It can be interpreted anatomically that the fossil almost resembles humans today. As they noted, the footprint measures 22 cm (8.5 inches) and is almost the same size as modern (American) women’s shoes at 7.5 inches and British while 6 inches. Roberts sees clearly that the heel, arch and big toe appear in one impression of the foot. He also assumed that the paw prints must have belonged to an ancient woman about 1.4 meters (4 feet 11 inches) tall. Then he also mentioned that the footprints were not much different from those of modern-day women in general.
Berger also said that about 3 dozen hominid fossils have been found in the period 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. The footprints were not born from ancient humans, but the first modern women. Furthermore, these footprints originated from blowing dry sand that was buried in heat and rain. In the end, the discovery was buried at a depth of approximately 30 feet (9 meters). The trail is protected from shells and hard sand to become sedimentary rock.
The research team of Berger and Roberts also reinforces the discovery of these footprints that previously these were formed through the use of new tools such as cutting edges, cutting blades, scrapers and cores. They confirm that this happened in the same area and also in the same period. There are also other facts which reveal that the use of ocher was also involved in the erosion of these traces.
Uniquely, they mention that the women of the era around 117,000 years ago used colorful powders. So that all layers of their skin look different from humans today. Some other paleontologists also say that the bones of ancient times appear to be harder.
Catching A Glimpse on Prof. Lee R. Berger’s “Almost Human” – Prof. Lee Bergers is not a newbie writer; previously he has been the cast of National Geographic journey. From this work, he gets a connection that later will help him finish the book titled “Almost Human”. What could a reader find in the book and how does the actual reader react to it?
– What Is It About?
The book will not be completed without the first epic finding of bones in South Africa. This is unlike any other bones, as the cave is hard to reach by human. Lee Berger stumbles to the finding while he is working in National Geographic’s documentation. After the project is finished, he calls for a group of explorers around the world to join his exploration.
Prof Berger called his team the “underground astronauts”. They start the expedition to reach inside a damp cave with approximately eight inches space to slip in. It takes days before the team could observe what lays inside. The team finds more than dozens of skeletons and each of them dated from at least two million years ago.
Tracking back to two million years ago, it is the exact time when Lucy, the popular finding in archeology lived. Since there is no official name to the finding yet, Beret calls his findings Homo Nalendi. The skeletons raise questions of human intelligence during prehistoric time. These questions are answered in the book. On the other hand, online betting answer the need of bettors to play.
How Is the Review?
The readers who take this book to their shelves must have heard a lot about Prof Beret and his archeological finding. These people might be part of “Lucy” fan club, referring to the suspected intelligent Homo Sapiens. They expect that the Homo Nalendi could explain the missing chain in human evolution.
Unfortunately, the book “Almost Human” does not answer the question around human evolution. It could be described better as the diary or log book about the process to unveil the skeleton of Homo Nalendi. Before human reach the current ability to think, how are their conditions? This is one simple question that Prof. Lee tries to answer through the book. It might be too complicated or hard to understand for some people, but for those who like the subject, this book is a masterpiece.
The Short Biography of Prof. Lee R. Berger – A Paleoanthropologist – Speaking about the paleoanthropology cannot be separated by the presence of Prof. Lee R. Berger. He was born on December 22, 1965. Berger is an American born South African. He is working as a paleoanthropologist. In addition, he also participates as National Geographic Explorer in Residence. He has published a lot of publications related to the paleoanthropology field. Most of his publications are open access. Therefore, a lot of people can look for some information about paleoanthropology. Berger is also an active keynote speaker at some conferences. He can attend around hundred years of conferences and talks interview. A lot of people use his discovery as the literature review and basic concept for their research.
The story of Berger as the paleoanthropologist begins during his time in a bachelor’s degree. He was studying anthropology and archeology in the minor of geology at Georgia Southern University. He graduated from this university in 1989. After that, he continued his study in the major of Paleoanthropology at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), South Africa for his doctoral studies. His advisor was Professor Philip Tobias. In this university, he was focusing on the early hominins especially shoulder girdle. Berger was graduated in 1994. Then, he continued his career by working as the researcher in the Gladysvale site in 1991. He and his team found the first early hominin from the sites. This discovery was a turning point for his career since the Gladysvale site became the first site to find the early hominin in South Africa. Due to his achievement, he was accepted as the research officer in Wits especially in Paleo-Anthropology Research Unit (PARU).
Berger continued his study as the postdoctoral research fellow in PARU. In this era, he worked with his team to do some researches about fossil hominin. Since he was succeed to bring his team in the excavations project, he was appointed as the Reader of Human Evolution and Public Understanding of Science. Since he has published a lot of journals especially open access journals, he was accepted as the research professor in paleoanthropology in the Evolutionary Studies Institute (ESI) and the Centre of Excellence in Palaeosciences (CoE Pal) in University of the Witwatersrand (Wits). Berger also completes his career by joining some organizations such as Paleoanthropological Scientific Trust (PAST) (1994 – 2001), World Heritage Site Status for the UNESCO, Makapansgat site development committee, and Jane Goodall Trust South Africa.
Lee R. Berger’s Books: Connects the Past and the Present – It is an undeniable fact that some pieces of human history disconnected. There is no record and no clear trails of what happened to ancient human. Professor Lee R. Bergers, a paleoanthropologist, gives us the way to connect the past and the present in his fascinating books.
• Almost Human: The Astonishing Tale of Homo Naledi
This book tells the readers about the most significant discovery of human history. It began when Berger’s son, Matthew, found out a human collarbone in Cradle of Humankind caves. This discovery is later known as a significant puzzle piece in human history.
When the excavation continued at the same spot, they found something more significant and, somehow, they change the chronology of human evolution. Berger and his team found the skeleton of Homo naledi.
This Homo naledi is believed as the missing link in Homo species which has some characters that make it looks almost human. This in-depth discussion about the ‘new’ ancestor in this book will make the readers’ mind blown away just like winning the jackpot from online poker games on.
• In the Footsteps of Eve: The Mystery of Human Origins
Human origins are the biggest unsolved mystery, just like the mystery of how winning jackpot nonstop from the online betting website unexplainable. Many people try to reveal it by creating both non-sense and make sense theories. However, Berger wants to inspect the idea from palaeoanthropology side. Berger tries to answer this biggest mystery by elaborating the concept of Darwin to some latest discoveries in this book.
This book is meticulously written to show a detective skill to unravel human origin from the depth of the caves and then to the sophisticated laboratories where the scientists reconstruct the skeleton of our ancestors. The readers can feel the chills through this book when Berger realised that what he found changes in human history. He shares his experience in this book, and the reader can see the process of how the history of 5,000 generations ago is assembled through Berger’s work.
Berger has three more masterpieces that try to connect the history of human ancestors to the present world. As he continues to do more exploration in this field, we can hope for great discovery in the future that opens our mind about human beings.
Lee R. Berger is well known for his significant contribution in palaeoanthropology. He led the discovery of the greatest invention in human history, Australopithecus sediba fossil skeletons. Nowadays, his activity is related to exploration and excavation as he does not want to stop to reveal human history.
• Non-Profit Organisation for Explorers
As he is an explorer, Berger wants to encourage other explorers to join the excavation team so they can find new proves about human ancestors. Therefore, he built the Lee R. Berger Foundation, which conducts and encourages the exploration in Africa. Furthermore, this foundation wants to preserve heritage objects and site, also educate the public about the importance of heritage conservation.
This is a non-profit foundation which means there is no commercials activity in this foundation, they depend on the donation. This foundation purely focuses on revealing human and earth history as well as on education. This organisation fully supports some parties who care about exploration and who wants to do excavation.
• Teaching at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg
Berger is also well known from his books and how he can tell the history of the discovery well, along with some theories. Therefore, it is no reason for the universities to not ask him to be a professor since he is an expert in his field. What an enjoyable experience for the students to get to learn from the expert, isn’t it?
He is a professor at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. Close enough to the excavation site where he found one of the most significant discoveries in palaeoanthropology, so he can work with excavation project while teaching.
• Malapa site and Rising Star Excavation Director
He still does some exploration in Africa and becomes the director of the Malapa site and Rising Star Excavation. The Rising Star Excavation is well known because of the finding of largest primitive hominin assemblage. He is still passionate to work on some projects to gain more prove about human ancestors.
It seems that Berger keeps himself busy after finding some incredible discoveries. This fact makes us, his fans, also feel his passion for revealing human history and bringing it to the present. Let’s hope for other significant discoveries in the future.
Prof. Lee R. Berger is a researcher in the paleoanthropology. His work has been published in a reputable journal every year. In addition, since he has a lot of research, he has been invited into hundreds of conference and talk show about the paleoanthropology. Moreover, he also has a connection with the National Geographic so that he will appear in numerous documentations. He was born in Kansas, 1965. He finished his bachelor’s degree at Georgia Southern University and graduated in 1989. His major is anthropology and archaeology. Then, he continued to study for his doctoral studies at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), South Africa. He also joined the post-doctoral studies in the same university.
As a professor in paleoanthropology, he has some specific studies that influence his research. His specific studies are Palau Fossils, Discovery of Australopithecus sediba, and Discovery of Homo Naledi. The first specific study result is Palau Fossils. His result of this research is written as the discovery report of Palau, Micronesia in 2006. The report also mentions at as the small-bodied humans in there. However, some of the other scholars argue that the found bodies are pygmoid in stature.
The second one is the Discovery Australopithecus sediba. This discovery is triggered by the finding clavicle and jawbone in Malapa Cave, South Africa by Lee Rogers Berger. Then, Berger with his team makes an excavation to find out more about the numerous bones. Those results are published with the content about Australopithecus sediba, a new species. The third specific study result is the discovery of Homo Naledi. The fossils are found in the remote chamber of the Dinaledi Chamber, previously known as Rising Star Cave Systems. The discovery involves the six researchers worldwide. The discovery can find about 1500 fossils. In 2015, the fossils are identified as the Homo Naledi.
Berger has published a lot of books regarding his research. Some books are written by himself. Meanwhile, the rest books are the result of cooperation between his colleagues. The example of his books are “Redrawing the family tree?”, “In the Footsteps of Eve”, “Change Starts in Africa”, “Working and Guiding in the Cradle of Humankind”, and others. Berger also gets some awards due to his dedication to paleoanthropology research. The examples of his awards are 100 Science Stories of the year by Discover Magazine, National Press Photographers Association, Golden Plate Awardee in the Academy of Achievement, The First National Geographic Society Prize for Research, and Exploration, and 100 most influential people in 2016.
Australopithecus Sediba, The Biggest Discovery of Prof. Lee R. Berger – Lee L. Berger is a scientist who is famous for his discoveries about Paleoanthropology. He also made a great research on the history of modern humans. One of his greatest discoveries was discovering Australopithecus Sediba. Basically, Australopithecus Sediba is a species of Australopitechus that lives in the Pleistocene stage.
Origin of Australopithecus Sediba
While the history of online gambling goes back centuries before getting a modern twist in the form of a website the history of Sediba’s Australopithecus began when the Australopithecus Sediba fossils were discovered in the Malapa Cave. From the latest research, there are several facts about this species:
– Understanding the word “Sediba”
The word Sediba itself comes from the Sotho language which means Natural Spring. Another meaning of Sediba is good. The term local is very popular to be used in scientific research and findings.
– Fell to Death
The findings show that Sediba Australopithecus died in the Malapa cave about 2 million years ago. They fell into the cave and died in the cave. Research shows that this is the reason for the extinction of this species.
These findings form the basis for further research by Prof. Lee R. Berger. After discovering Astralopithecus Sediba, Prof. Lee R. Berger continued his research on the history of modern humans. Until finally research came to the bottom of Sediba’s Australopithecus morphology.
After discovering the origin of Sediba’s Australopithecus, research now shows the morphological origin of Sediba’s Australopithecus itself. Based on Prof. Lee R. Berger’s research, Australopithecus Sediba is morphologically related to Homo Habillis and Australopithecus Africanus species that lived long before them.
– Homo Habillis
Homo Habillis is an ancient species of Homo that lived between 2.1 million years ago – 1.5 million years ago. This species lived in Getasian until the early stages of Calabria before it became extinct.
– Australopithecus Africanus
This species is a slim human body. In other words, Australopithecus Africanus is the closest ancestor of modern humans. This is also an extinction version of the Australopithecine species.
Both Australopithecus Sediba, Australopithecus Africanus, and Homo Habillis were essentially extinct around 2 million – 1.98 million years ago. But the findings may say something deeper than the number of ancestors of modern humans in this era.
The biggest discovery from Prof. Lee R. Berger continues to other parts of the invention. After becoming one of the National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, he is still continuing other discoveries and exploring other caves to do other research. Australopithecus Sediba is one of the best inventions for all humans in this era. So, now we know who our direct ancestors are.
Geography: The Branches – Geography, which means earth description, is one of the fields of science that will be focused on studying the land, the features, and any phenomenon of the earth. This particular subject had been introduced by a famous scientist called Eratosthenes (276 to 194 BC). Since then, many believed that geography could be the right discipline science that helps people to understand the complexity of human and the nature so well. Aside of that, it can also be the best reference that you can take when you want to find out about the impacts of the dynamic changes of the people and their environment.
Then, it will be so much better for you to know that geography is actually divided into several branches. One of them is the physical geography which will be emphasized on understanding the physical problems that happens on the earth, such as the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, climatology, environmental management, oceanography, and so many more. So then, all of them will be commonly used for analyzing the condition of the earth in order to get the best solution, so that people can solve the issues nicely. Furthermore, the other branch of geography is the human geography. This specific thing is actually about studying all aspects happen in the human society, which can be from the patterns to the political aspect of the society. So, this field of geography will allow you to explore all the factors that influence the community in a specific region deeply.
Well, both of the branches are actually some of many broad fields of geography that make the scientists able to read the signs shown by the society and the nature. Basically, they all can be combined in order to create the comprehensive data or information related to the environmental geography which tells you about the interactions of the human and the environment surely.
Homo Naledi is one of the extinct species of Hominini or well known as Hominins. Hominis itself is the sub-family from tribe of Hominae. Gorilla is a kind from Hominins species. In early 2013, Prof. Lee R. Berger found fossils in another side of Malapa Cave in Cradle of Humankind World Heritage. The exact location is near South Africa where everything is exotic and becomes a serious theme for movies and games.
– Rising Star Cave
The expedition in another side of Malapa Cave is called Rising Star Cave. Lead by Prof Lee R. Berger himself, this expedition was focused on the excavation of Homo Naledi fossil that is found inside the cave. This expedition held for almost 2 years, around 2013 until 2015, and it became a popular expedition among scientists, just as popular as online gambling for active players during the years. Here is the result of the expedition:
- The Location
Located in Gauteng Province of South Africa, Prof. Lee R. Berger and team found that Homo Naledi is different kind of fossil that need to be excavated soon. The exact area o fit is 800 meters south-west Swartkrans of Malmani Dolomites, around Bloubank river valley.
- The Excavation
The excavation of Homo Naledi itself happen around 2013 û 2015. It took almost 3 years because the team had to excavate more than 1.550pecimen that found in the cave. However, this expedition still the part of Cradle of Humankind World Heritage in South Africa, near the Malapa cave where Australopithecus had been found in 2010. The age of Homo Naledi predicted around 2 million years ago. But the latest study said that the factual age of Homo Naledi is around 250.000 years. The evidence of Homo Naledi’s age is shown in the characteristics of its fossil.
– The Characteristics of Homo Naledi
The research found that Homo Naledi is still one of the sub-family of Hominae tribe. However, there are many different characteristics of another kinds of fossil and Homo Naledi. Here is some characteristics of Homo Naledi:
- Not the Closest Ancestor of Human
Look from the shape of the fossil, Homo Naledi is not the closest ancestor of human. The shape is kind a different with homoÆs fossil.
- Body Size
The finding shows that Homo Naledi has smaller body size than human itself. It shows that they are not realy related to each other.
- Skull and Endocranial Volume
The other evidence shows that Homo Naledi has smaller endocranial and head volume than human, or een with Australopithecus.
Even Homo Naledi has some differences with Australopithecus, but both of them still have the same anatomy. It shows that theystill came from the same sub familyof Hominini. The skull size also has the same size with early Homo species that found in another place of Malapa Fossil-Site.
It will always be a great idea for you to study geography because it will definitely offer you the wide range of options when you want to build your career which can be a climatologist, an expert of environmental management, and so on. Aside of that, there are some other reasons why you have to study geography for sure. Then, what are they? If you really want to know the answers, you better check them out below.
Well, one of the reasons why you better study geography is that it can help you to find out how geography in the past time was. So then, you will have the chance to learn how it keeps changing, and also how it influences the environment, ideas, cultures, and so on. Not only that, you will see that the changing geography can also give the impressive impacts to the evolution of the people as well. So, all of them will make you able to understand all the aspects in the life in the nicer way. Furthermore, the other reason that you have to really consider when you want to Study Geography is that it will make you appreciate the earth as your homeland in the better way. Then, somehow it will make you realize it is so important for you to preserve or use the resources of the planet wisely. Thus, you can make sure that all of them can really suit our needs without making any damages to the environment so badly.
In conclusion, those are some of the reasons why geography becomes a subject that you have to learn. All of them can also be the advantageous things that will excite you so well. So, it is obvious that it will never be something that you will regret when you decide to take geography as your main subject.
Learning geography is a very nice thing to do as it will give you the chance to understand the earth and the societies in the better way. So then, you will able to find out the interactions that might happen between the environment and the people, and also how the natural phenomena can influence the surface of the earth and the ideas of the people in a particular place. Nevertheless, you have to make sure that you do the right basic techniques in order to get the best knowledge of this subject. So, what are they? Let’s find out below.
Well, one of the basic techniques that you have to do when you learn geography is observation. This kind of technique is so suitable for you who really want to find out the geographic phenomena deeply. So then, you will get the perfect and accurate representations of the complexities happen on earth. In this case, there are still so many geographers that do the traditional on the ground contact to the subject through exploration and field observation. Furthermore, the other technique that you have to be able to do is display analysis technique. As a geography learner, you have to be able to minimally read and understand the information that is shown on the various geographic displays, which can be from maps to graphics, no matter if they are the traditional or the modern ones. So then, you can capture all the important things on the display without any mistakes at all.
After putting it all together, those are some of the basic techniques that you have to do when you want to learn geography in the best way. All of them will give you the right and proven information and data that you need for sure. So, you can make it the reliable sources to develop your knowledge and the science itself nicely.
Do you look for the best subject to learn at the university? If you do, it will be so recommended for you to choose geography. One of the reasons why you have to choose this subject is because it can provide you so broad fields that you can explore, which can be ranging from climatology to ecology. Besides, there are also the various benefits that you can get when you learn this science. Then, in case you are so willing to figure them out, you have to keep reading below.
Well, one of the notable benefits that you gain when you study geography is that it has the basic two branches of geography that you can choose, whether it is the physical or the human geography. Then, after choosing of the branches, you will find that each of them will be offering you the numerous fields to explore based on your passion. So then, you will always have the big chance to be the excellent geographer with the different degrees of types of geography.
Moreover, the other benefits is that the study of geography will give you the opportunity to make research, so that you can develop your knowledge and get some inspirations and new techniques to support your scientific paper. In addition from it can also give you more the scholarship and studying abroad opportunity, which can be Europe, Australasia, North America, and so on. Thus, you try to do your best to get the valuable experiences that you might need when you join the industry.
After putting it all together, those are some remarkable benefits that you can get when you learn geography. Hopefully, all of them can be the good considerations that you can take when you want to continue your study to the university. So then, there is nothing that you will regret in the future.
When you study geography, writing a paper about it can be one of the most challenging things for sure. Then, in case you have a little problem when writing your geography paper, it is so much recommended for you to follow these some steps to help you to do your work in the easier way. Let’s check them out.
The first thing that you have to do is to choose a particular topic that you are interested in. In this case, it is a must for you to have the simple and specific topic that has to be focused on something that you want to observe. It is so much necessary for you to do so that you never make your paper out of the topic. Furthermore, the second step that you have to do is that you have to start your research. In this case, it is a very great idea for you to gather a lot of information related to your topic you have chosen before. You can go to the local library or look for some journals on the internet in order to gather all the info you need.
Moreover, you can start your paper now by making an introduction. In this phase, you have to make it simple so that it can state your topic clearly. Afterwards, you can begin writing the body where you have to make an essay based on the info you have got before. However, you have to ensure that you write them using your own words. Not only that, do not ever forget to cite your sources to avoid any plagiarism. Lastly, you and have to make a conclusion which sum up all the important points of your paper. Additionally, it is a must for you revise the paper before you submit it to your geography teacher.
Geography can be defined as one of the most popular sciences that many people are really interested in. It is all because this particular subject can offer the broad fields and opportunities to have the bright career when you join the professional world. Then, there are various other things that you have to know about geography which you can find out below.
Well, one of many things that you have to know about geography is that it is actually different from geology. In the simple words, geography has been divided in to two different branches which are the physical geography and the human geography.
The physical geography will be emphasized on studying the surface, the landscapes, and the features of the earth. Then, the human geography will be learning about the cultures, the ideas, the economy, and the politic of the people in a specific place. Aside of that, it will also make you study about how the society and the environment influence each other. On the other hand, geology is actually more focused on studying the deeper parts of the earth such as volcanoes, plate tectonics, the internal process of the earth, the history of the earth since quite long time ago.
Next, the other thing that you have to know about geography is that it cannot be separated from any other sciences, which can be like biology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, and so on. So, you will never run out of things to observe and explore one you have studied about the type of science.
After putting it all together, those are several things that you have to know when you decide to learn geography. All of them can be the nice information that will make you have the more notable knowledge of the subject for sure. Thus, you can find out what you can do when you become a professional geographer.
Geography is one of the most popular discipline sciences that attract the attention of many people now. Some thinks that this subject is so interesting and can give more chances to explore the earth and its phenomena. Then, some others think that it can lead them to the bright and promising careers in the future. However, do you know how the history of geography began? In case you really want to figure it out, you better continue reading below.
In the beginning, the people of Greece were the ones who actively explored geography to be a science and a philosophy in their lives. Then, they also used this subject as the references as they always tried to explore new lands. Even, they could improve this science to the higher level because there were so many great people who contributed to the explorations, such as Aristotle, Herodotus, Hipparchus, Eratosthenes, and so on. Furthermore, the interest in geography got increased significantly especially in Europe after the journey of Marco Polo during the middle age period.
Then, the best thing about it was when a great voyage during the Renaissance to the 17th century made the people have the more accurate imagery of the earth. It can be proven by a world map created by Bernhardus Varenius and Gerardus Mercator. After that, geography had been recognized as one of the discipline sciences that will be learnt on the university since the 18th century. At the same time, the broad fields of geography had developed influenced the views and thoughts of many people greatly.
Thus, based on the brief history of geography above it is clear that geography always get developed as the nature and the society change dynamically. It even links to the various broad fields like ecology, botany, climatology, and etc. So, you will never run out of subject to explore once you have decided to study geography.
Learning geography is interesting. This subject is also important to learn in school. this is because this subject tells about the earth and its characteristic, and this makes this subject essential to learn. As mathematics, and language, geography and other subjects are main sciences to study. That is why this subject is compulsory in middle school and this is major choice to take in high school. there is big importance of learning this subject.
People will learn about many things in geography. It is not only about the surfaces of the earth. This subject also talks about things under the surface of the earth, including the stones and layers of the earth. It also talks about the things above the surfaces, even the atmosphere and its various layers. There are also many earth phenomena learnt in this subject. That is why this is so important and interesting to learn this subject.
In this case, there are also some interesting geographical facts to learn. This can make people stimulated to learn more about geography. The first fact is about the smallest country in the world. There is a small county in the world, but this country has very essential roles. This is Vatican City or Holy See. This country is very small and it is cannot be compared to even Singapore in Asia continent. Singapore is still bigger than Vatican. Vatican is only around 0.44 kilometer square. This is very small country, but this has important role. It is because Vatican is the home of biggest church in the world. This is the home of Christians and there is Pope as the leader of the Catholic Church. That is why this is small yet important and famous country.
Then, about the earth, this is divided into four hemispheres. There are northern, southern, western, and eastern hemispheres. In this case, there are continents in earth and most of the continents cover maximum of one and a half part of the hemisphere. However, there is Africa that covers all of the four hemispheres. This is interesting and this makes Africa so special since this will have various climates and weathers. Its geographical aspects of this continents may also be complete since there are four characteristic of hemispheres.
Then, about the continent and countries, there is China that is also special in term of its border. About the size, this is one of the biggest countries on earth. Then, this country shares its borders with many countries. There are 14 countries sharing borders with China. This means that this country is bordered by many countries and this make China so special. Its borders include country in Asia and Europe continents.